Skin In women, the breasts overlie the pectoralis major muscles and usually extend from the level of the second rib to the level of the sixth rib in the front of the human rib cage ; thus, the breasts cover much of the chest area and the chest walls. At the front of the chest, the breast tissue can extend from the clavicle collarbone to the middle of the sternum breastbone. At the sides of the chest, the breast tissue can extend into the axilla armpit , and can reach as far to the back as the latissimus dorsi muscle , extending from the lower back to the humerus bone the longest bone of the upper arm. As a mammary gland , the breast is composed of differing layers of tissue , predominantly two types: The suspensory Cooper's ligaments are fibrous-tissue prolongations that radiate from the superficial fascia to the skin envelope. The female adult breast contains 14—18 irregular lactiferous lobes that converge at the nipple.
Superficial spreading melanoma
Breast - Wikipedia
Open in a separate window Key: As short, endogenous, non-coding RNA molecules, they negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Moreover, since each microRNA can potentially modulate several hundred genes, changes in expression of a single microRNA can have deep pathological consequences [ 80 — 82 ]. Their ability to successfully discriminate between cancer tissues and normal tissues, subtype, age at diagnosis and mutational status in other cancers suggests that microRNA expression can also yield insight into distinctions among melanoma histopathological subtypes [ 83 — 86 ]. This data also suggests that genomic differences cannot be reconciled with the linear model of progression. Additional Studies Supporting Differences between Superficial Spreading and Nodular Melanoma Several recent studies have aimed to undercover relevant molecular trends among the current histologic subtypes. Kanoh and colleagues examined 15 NM and 12 SSM formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded FFPE tissues for levels of nestin, a marker or neural stem cells that has recently been suggested to be a marker of melanoma cells of origin [ 88 ].
Superficial thrombophlebitis (Mondor's Disease) after breast augmentation surgery
Surgery[ edit ] Standard surgical excision[ edit ] This can be with either frozen section histology , or paraffin-embedded fixed-tissue pathology. It is the preferred method for removal of most BCCs. A dermatoscope can help an experienced surgeon accurately identify the visible tumour that the naked eye can not see. The narrower the free surgical margin skin removed that is free of visible tumor the higher the recurrence rate.
Open Search Superficial Bladder Cancer Superficial bladder cancer is also called non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. This type of bladder cancer is found on the surface of the inside lining of the bladder. Patients are often found to have this kind of bladder cancer because of blood in the urine, problems passing urine, or irritation when they urinate. The blood in the urine can be seen by the patient red urine with or without clots or can be found by a doctor on a routine check of the urine in the office. Superficial bladder cancer is found in both men and women.